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32nd International Union of Radio Science General Assembly & Scientific Symposium * Montreal, Canada * 19-27 August 2017 Home Page

Scientific Program - Commission B

Commission B Chair:
Prof. Ari Sihvola (Finland );

Commission B - Tutorial

Sergei Tretyakov - "Metasurfaces: Synthesis for Perfect Refraction and Reflection of Waves into Arbitrary Directions"

Convener: Ari Sihvola

Electrically thin composite layers (metasurfaces) can be used to realize extremely thin absorbers, lenses, focusing reflectors, and more. In this tutorial talk we will discuss metasurfaces optimally designed for application-required transformations of electromagnetic fields. We will explain what physical properties of metasurface unit cells are responsible for various field transformations and illustrate the potentials of this technology by several examples from our experimental work. The main focus of the lecture will be on surfaces for perfect refraction or reflection of plane waves into desired directions. Conventionally, design of transmitarrays and reflectarrays has been based on assuring the desired reflection or transmission properties at every point of the metasurface area, using the generalized laws or refraction and reflection.  However, this approach does not lead to exactly the required performance. In this talk we will explain how it is possible to create metasurfaces which function exactly as is required by the design specification and show experimental results.

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Commission B - "Electromagnetic Theory"

Conveners: Daniel Sjöberg , Ben Zion Steinberg

This session addresses the most recent advances in electromagnetic theory. It includes all aspects of electromagnetics, and all frequency ranges from statics to optics, including both time and frequency formulations. Of special interest are advances in mathematical and material modeling, solutions of canonical problems, analytic identities, guided waves, mathematical aspects of numerical methods, random and complex media, asymptotic methods, and antenna theory. Owing to the wide scope of URSI and to the multi-disciplinary nature of contemporary research in electromagnetism, an extended view of the topics above is also welcome. This includes classical theories, as well as the incorporation of electromagnetism and quantum theory on the nano-scale. We expect contributions in this session to present unexpected phenomena, new paradigms or new interpretations of fundamental concepts, new solution methods, or to address questions with respect to well-posedness of different problems and models.

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Commission B - "Solutions to Canonical Problems"

Conveners: Andrey Osipov , Paul Smith

The session will address solutions of Maxwell's equations, in frequency and time domain, in the presence of canonically shaped bodies. In addition to exact solutions, approximate, low- and high-frequency, as well as semi-numerical and numerical solutions are invited. Solutions for structures involving engineered materials (e.g. negative refractive index materials, metamaterials and metasurfaces) are particularly welcome. The geometries of interest may include (but are not limited to) spheres, cylinders, wedges or variants of cloaking structures. Applications may range over the whole electromagnetic spectrum, from microwaves to visible light.

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Commission B - "Multiphysics and Multiscale Problems"

Conveners: Weng Cho Chew , Qing Huo Liu , Levent Gurel

The goal of this special session is to share cutting-edge research ideas on solvers for multi-scale and multi-physics problems.  Multi-scale systems are frequently encountered in real-life applications, where fine details may coexist with orders-of-magnitude larger structures.  Multi-physics occurs within the Maxwellian system itself, with circuit physics, wave physics, and ray physics coexisting in a multi-scale environment.  But multi-physics can also occur across disciplines.  For example, this could be co-simulation of Maxwell's equations together with quantized electromagnetic field, Schrodinger equation, heat equation, acoustic equation, elastic equation, transport equations, etc. Applications can be derived from various disciplines, such as quantum information, information technology, nano-technology, clean energy, and biotechnology. Papers in this special session can describe new methodologies for solving such systems, physical insight, applications, and designs. Potential topics may include (but are not limited to):

  • Fast and accurate solvers
  • Hybrid solution techniques
  • Equivalence principle algorithm (EPA)
  • Domain decomposition methods
  • Complex multi-scale structures
  • Coexisting and interacting multi-physics problems
  • New mathematical techniques
  • Parallel computing

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Commission B - "Advanced Algorithms in Computational Electromagnetics"

Conveners: Vladimir Okhmatovski , Pasi Ylä-Oijala

Numerical simulations and modeling play a crucial role in many 3D electromagnetic research & development tasks. More and more sophisticated algorithms and solvers have been developed and applied to find solutions for complicated and challenging real-world engineering problems. Despite of these great advances there still exist problems that are difficult to solve or are unattainable with presently available techniques. The algorithms may be plagued with severe shortcomings such as numerical instabilities, inaccuracies, and ill-conditioned linear systems or the solution of the problem requires too many degrees of freedom. The focus of this session is on advanced algorithms in computational electromagnetics which find remedies for these challenges. These algorithms can be based on both methodology developments and improvements as well as on application oriented solutions. Potential topics may include (but are not limited to): - Preconditioning techniques

  • Parallelization
  • High-order methods
  • Error-controllable algorithms
  • Fast iterative and direct solvers
  • EM optimization and design
  • Time-domain solvers
  • Domain decomposition methods
  • Matrix compression techniques

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Commission B - "Integral Equation, Hybrid, and Fast Methods"

Conveners: Thomas Eibert , Francesco Andriulli

Integral equation solutions provide usually very accurate and robust results of scattering, radiation and field transformation problems. Due to their global nature, they lead, however, to fully-populated operator equations, which in turn result in field solvers with a bad numerical complexity. Fast integral solvers aim at reducing the bad solution complexity and this can be achieved by a variety of different techniques. The focus of this session is primarily on integral equation formulations and corresponding hybrid methods as well as on fast iterative and direct solvers, which reduce the solver complexity of the operator equations in the context of radiation, scattering, or field transformation problems, where free-space or other Green's functions (as e.g. for layered media) are used. Improvements of existing techniques are as welcome as completely new approaches. The techniques can be based on purely algebraic, but also on physics motivated procedures. They can work in time-domain or in frequency domain, where low-frequency, high-frequency, and very wideband techniques are of interest.

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Commission B - "Staffan Ström Memorial Session"

Convener: Gerhard Kristensson

This session is organized to commemorate the life and work of Professor Staffan Ström (1934-2016), who passed away in August 2016. Staffan was a well-known scientist in radio science both in Sweden and internationally. The invited talks in the session will concentrate on areas which were close to Staffan and where he worked actively: wave scattering and propagation, interaction of electromagnetic waves with materials, and mathematical fundamentals of radio science.

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Commission B - "MetasurfaceEngineering"

Conveners: Tie Jun Cui , Anthony Grbic , Stefano Maci

Metasurfaces have been overwhelmingly investigated in recent years. Compared to the bulk metamaterials, metasurfaces have many advantages such as low profile, low loss, low cost, and easy conformation to curved objects. Combining with the classical electromagnetic theories such as the Babinet principle, Snell's law, and Huygens principle, and surface/leaky wave theory, metasurfaces have shown powerful abilities to control the electromagnetic waves, constructing a lot of new physical phenomena like anomalous reflections and refractions, optical vortexes, light bending, photonic spin Hall effect, polarization and beam shaping controls, etc. In this special session, we propose to include the most recent advances on metasurfaces, concentrating on the methods, designs, and applications with emphasis to microwave engineering. The metasurfaces include scalar (isotropic), vector (uniaxially anisotropic), and tensor (fully anisotropic) distributions of impedance and (or) index of refraction to provide extreme controls of electromagnetic radiations, propagations, scattering, and polarization.

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Commission B - "High-Resolution Electromagnetic Sensing and Imaging"

Conveners: Alexander Yarovoy , Natalia Nikolova

Such applications as autonomous driving, robotic vision, medical imaging, ground penetrating radar, synthetic aperture radar, concealed weapon detection and others require high-resolution object imaging or material properties profiles. Typically electromagnetic waves with ultra-wide-bandwidth or/and large spatial diversity are used to provide required performance. The session will provide an overview of recently developed electromagnetic methods capable to achieve high-resolution target characterisation and illustrate these methods on a variety of applications.

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Commission B - "Novel Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetics"

Conveners: Kazuya Kobayashi , Yuri Shestopalov

This session will cover recent achievements in the area of advanced analytical and numerical methods as applied to various problems arising in all branches of electromagnetics. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following areas: analytical regularization methods; antennas and radiation; approximate boundary conditions; canonical problems; computational electromagnetics; electromagnetic theory; fast solvers; gratings and periodic structures; guided waves; high-frequency techniques; integral equation methods; inverse problems; inverse scattering and imaging; metamaterials; nano-electromagnetics; nonlinear phenomena; novel mathematical techniques; numerical methods; plasmonics; propagation; radar cross section; random media and rough surfaces; remote sensing; scattering and diffraction; time-domain methods; visualization of electromagnetic fields; waves in complex media.

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Commission B - "Scattering and Diffraction"

Conveners: Ludger Klinkenbusch , Giuliano Manara

The session will review topics covering a wide range of scattering and diffraction problems, including edge diffraction, high-frequency methods, hybridization with high-frequency methods, use of artificial structures for optimal control of wave propagation, scattering from disordered media, and potential applications. Study of scattering from non-linear/anisotropic media as well as mathematical problems will also be emphasized. In addition, scattering and diffraction by canonical structures will be considered. Of interest might be different types of illuminating fields, such as plane waves, rays, and beams.

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Commission B - "Small Antennas from Nano to Macro Scales"

Conveners: Samel Arslanagic , Richard Ziolkowski

The proposed session will focus on recent advances in the field of passive and active small antennas from the nano-scale (nano-antennas) to the macro scale (electrically small antennas).  It will include invited theoretical, numerical and experimental contributions from imminent researchers presenting not only reviews of their past and current exciting developments, but also their views into future directions.

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Commission B - "Advanced Antenna Concepts"

Conveners: John Volakis , Christos Christodoulou

This session focuses on reconfigurable, multiband, and wideband antenna concepts for software and cognitive radio systems. Applications include specific waveforms and coding methods for spectrum sharing and MIMO concepts for high data rate communications.

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Commission B - "Inverse Scattering and Imaging"

Conveners: Matteo Pastorino , Lianlin Li

Electromagnetic wave techniques, both active and passive, are gathering strong attention in sensing and imaging related to security applications. They include landmine detection, identification of intruders, finding human bodies in disaster events, vehicle collision avoidance, security checking at airports, etc. Used wavelength now ranges from radio to X-ray waves. One of recent driving forces is the use of UWB (Ultra Wideband) signals, which dramatically improves the range resolution, and thus extends the applicability of radar technique to targets with very short ranges, such as indoor and medical imaging. Many of these applications require super resolution and/or very fast computation in order to provide real time images with high quality and reliability. Advanced inverse scattering algorithms and imaging techniques are the key issues of the session. Theoretical investigations and studies aiming to other type of applications are of course welcome.

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Commission B - "Recent Advances in Metamaterials"

Conveners: Ari Sihvola , Ismo Lindell

The recent turn of the century saw the appearance of metamaterials into the scene of radio science. Metamaterials form a class of media whose properties emerge from their structural constellations. Despite the fact that the definition of metamaterials is fluid, the developments of research on these complex media within the domain of electromagnetics has been extremely rapid and full of unanticipated results and applications. This session is open to all new developments within electromagnetic metamaterials: their fundamental theory, computational modeling, and applications in radio science.

Commission B - "Open Session"

Conveners: Ari Sihvola , Kazuya Kobayashi

This session will accept any papers falling within the terms of reference of Commission B and not covered elsewhere.

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Commissions BD - "Advances in Antennas for RFID 1"

Conveners: Ville Viikari , Smail Tedjini , Apostolis Georgiadis

RFID technology continues its rapid development and is seen as a viable solution for the implementation of the last few meters of the paradigm of internet of things. In particular UHF passive tags can reach a read range in excess of 20m. Besides the properties of RFID chips the role and the properties of the tag antennas are very effective in the design of   augmented tags that can allow more than ID. In this session we focus on the design of specific antennas for tags and readers in the context of RFID system. So miniaturization, conforming and adapting to the environment are important and relevant issues for the designers. New antennas concepts, properties and operation are welcome in this session.

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Commissions CB - "5G Communication Systems"

Conveners: Ozlem Kilic and, Amir I. Zaghloul

With the need for high bandwidth and data rate along with uninterrupted connectivity, 5G systems will heavily rely on adaptive antennas both at user end and stations. Ability to utilize other users who may be idle as relays is one of the many approaches to optimally utilize the system. The session includes papers on communication and network systems, as well as antennas and propagation perspectives.

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Commissions CDB - "Exploitation of Non-Linearities for Passive Wireless Sensors"

Conveners: Yvan Duroc, Ville Viikari, Ke Wu

With the increasing interest of the concepts of Smart Cities, Smart Buildings and the Internet of Things, one of major challenges is the sensor nodes power management in order to provide autonomy to the large amount of devices. Energy harvesting solutions, wireless power transmission techniques, RFID tags, harmonic transponders, intermodulation sensors, and etc. offer solutions based on nonlinear components.  The nonlinearity is beneficially used for rectification, harmonic generation and (inter)modulation. This session focuses on the exploitation of nonlinearities in the context of passive wireless sensors. The expected contributions cover all aspects from optimization of energy sources to new passive approaches to transfer data.

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Commissions DB - "Fibers and Waveguide Optics"

Conveners: Günter Steinmeyer, Vincenzo Galdi

This topic includes, but is not limited to fundamental optical effects like optical parametric processes, harmonic generation, nonlinear wave mixing, self- and cross-phase modulation, and stimulated scattering effects. Particular emphasis is on nonlinear optics in guided geometries and micro- or nanostructured materials, including waveguides, fibers, and metamaterials, quasi-phase matched devices as well as self-guiding such as in filaments. Applications of these effects include nonlinear wavelength conversion, continuum generation, optical solitons, nonlinear spectroscopy, pulse generation, mode-locking, pulse shaping, and any other novel applications of nonlinear phenomena, novel materials, and structures.

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Commissions DB - "Microwave and Millimeter Wave Identification and Sensing"

Conveners: Smail Tedjini, Ville Viikari, Arnaud Vena

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a relevant technology based on communication and monitoring by means of reflected electromagnetic waves. Nowadays it has thousands of applications in numerous professional domains and more and more in our everyday life. The concepts and technologies behind RFID are rapidly evolving from Identification to sensing capabilities, which allow the emergence of cognitive devices and systems. This session should attract papers on the design of advanced RFID systems and devices and the new ideas and concepts in this very fruitful domain of radioscience. It should cover the main aspects of physics and technology behind RFID systems. A special attention will be given to the evolution of this identification passive technology to passive sensing capabilities and energy efficiency involving study on material and nanomaterial. This session is open to studies on novel manufacturing techniques such as printing electronics and their compatibility with the realization of efficient radio frequency identification tags. This session covers also emerging researches on chipless based identification technology and higher frequency identification systems (millimeter wave, THz).

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Commissions DBC - "Wireless Power Transmission"

Conveners: Apostolos Georgiadis, Naoki Shinohara

Wireless power transmission is finding wide application in powering devices from low power wireless sensor network nodes to larger appliances such as computers, mobile phones and even vehicles. This session highlights new applications addressing different charging requirements and operating frequency, as well as circuital and system challenges in improving the performance of such systems, such as increasing efficiency, operating range and sensitivity to misalignments or variations in load and power.

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Commissions EB - "Chaos and Complexity"

Conveners: G. Gradoni, G. Tanner, A. Shivola

Statistical electromagnetics and wave chaos aim at characterizing and understanding the field propagation in complex circuits and environments. In particular, chaotic dynamics offers a unique platform for modeling wave systems with an arbitrary number of degrees of freedom. Recent studies in wave chaos have attracted researchers in electromagnetic theory and universal statistical properties have been used to study large electromagnetic systems without solving the full-wave problem. Circuits within printed circuit boards are now modeled as complex statistical sources that can be treated through semi-classical as well as random matrix theories. Novel theoretical models have been developed describing fields through complicated electromagnetic environments - including electromagnetic reverberation chambers - also accounting for coupling through apertures and including losses at both microwave and mmWave regimes.

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Commissions FB - "EM Modeling and Applications of Underground Imaging"

Conveners: Lorenzo Capineri, Motoyuki Sato

Underground imaging based on ground penetrating radar is a widespread method for the investigation of soil characteristics and for the detection and characterization of buried objects.  The scanning method based on a single or multiple (array) antennae has an important role in the final quality of the images as the coupling of antenna element with the soil can be variable from point to point due to the different geometrical characteristics of the surface. The EM modeling of the antenna coupling and solutions for the mitigation of detrimental effect on the image reconstruction are topics of interest for the session.

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Commissions FB - "Electromagnetic Problems Involving Volume Scattering"

Conveners: V. Chandrasekar, Ari Sihvola

Volume scattering processes form the basis for understanding and interpreting electromagnetic measurements appropriate to integrated effects from numerous scatterers, such as rainfall, snowfall and the volume of snow on the ground. This session will enable a forum for exchange of ideas related to fundamental research problems in volume scattering including, dielectric constant in mixtures, interpretation of multiple-polarization volume scattering signatures of ice/snow, hail/rain, soil/water mixtures, inversion problems in volume scattering.

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Commissions KBE - "Uncertainty Management and Stochastic Methods in Experimental and Numerical Electromagnetism, Environmental Exposure Assessment and Dosimetry"

Conveners: Joe Wiart, Tonging Wu, Ari Sihvola, Gabriele Gradoni

The increasing use of RF wireless communication system is supported by complex and agile technologies and network architectures. It has also induced large variability of usages. The management of such complexity has requested innovative approaches experimental and Numerical Electromagnetism, environmental exposure assessment and dosimetry.  This session is devoted to recent progress and application of methods based on advanced statistical methods (e.g., Surrogate modelling, Polynomial Chaos, Kriging, Machine Learning, Sensibility analysis, etc. ) in experimental and Numerical Electromagnetism and dosimetry

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Commissions KBF - "Electromagnetic Inversion for Biomedical, Geophysical, Non-destructive Testing, and Antenna Characterization Applications"

Conveners: Aria Abubakar, Puyan Mojabi,

Electromagnetic inversion is the process by which some properties of an investigation domain are inferred from external electromagnetic observations. Several application areas, which span a wide range of frequencies from a few hertz to optical frequencies, utilize electromagnetic inversion algorithms and techniques to reconstruct the properties of interest, such as complex permittivity profiles of biological tissues, conductivity profiles in geophysical surveys, or equivalent current distributions of antennas. This special session is focused on bringing together recent advances in quantitative electromagnetic inverse scattering and inverse source algorithms/techniques in these application areas to enhance the achievable reconstruction accuracy, resolution, or efficiency of the computational process. The enhancement can be obtained by methods such as properly incorporating prior information into the inversion algorithm, appropriate numerical modelling and calibration, and new advances in inversion algorithms.